Thursday, October 3, 2013

Why did the turkey cross the road?

Wild Turkey marching down Harvard Street, Cambridge, MA

Tuesday, July 23, 2013

Juniper Hairstreaks

I'll post some more reports from my Alaska trip soon, but I had to share these images of a Juniper Hairstreak I found nectaring on butterfly milkweed this afternoon. I rarely see this species away from redcedars (the caterpillar host plant), so this was a very exciting find.

After finding this female, my mom and I discovered a male nectaring on a bergamot flower not too far from the patch of milkweed!

Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Alaska, Day Two: Seward and Exit Glacier

We started Wednesday morning by heading towards Lowell Point, a small establishment a few miles south of Seward. The road between Seward and the point ran right along the shore, giving us wonderful views of the mountains on the other side of the bay.

As we approached Lowell Point, we stopped to walk along the road. A small group of Harlequin Ducks swam just off the shore, and a family of Common Ravens sat and squawked from the rocks above us.

The most abundant birds here were the "Sooty" Fox Sparrows singing from the low shrubs on either side of the road. This subspecies occurs along the Pacific Coast of North America and looks quite different from the "Red" Fox Sparrows I am used to seeing migrate through Pennsylvania.

The woods around Lowell Point were mostly filled with the usual suspects, especially Hermit Thrushes and Townsend's Warblers. We did find one gorgeous "Pacific" Steller's Jay. This species, although common in areas where I had birded before, had somehow eluded me. These coastal individuals differ from the inland subspecies (like the ones I missed in the Rockies) in that they lack white markings on the face.

As we headed back towards Seward along the same road on which we had arrived, we noticed a number of birds out on the water. Several more Harlequin Ducks had arrived and were now floating near two playful Sea Otters! A single Pigeon Guillemot swam up to the ducks, but soon took off and flew farther out into the bay. Another alcid, this one a Marbled Murrelet, swam close to shore. Although the bird was close, its frequent dives made photography extremely tricky!

On the shore itself, I spotted two fairly large shorebirds running over the rocks. I immediately recognized them as Wandering Tattlers, yet another lifer for this tiny stretch of road!

one of two Wandering Tattlers along the shore
We then worked our way from Seward north just a few miles to Exit Glacier, situated within the Kenai Fjords National Park. This glacier, formerly known as Resurrection Glacier, was renamed after it served as an exit for the first party to traverse the Harding Icefield. Along the path to the base of the ice, we were serenaded by Yellow, Yellow-rumped, Wilson's, and Orange-crowned Warblers. A few thrushes—Hermit and Swainson's—sang from the brush as well.

The glacier was spectacular. I had never seen one up-close before, so the size and color were incredibly fascinating and awe-inspiring. Murky, silty water flowed heavily in the glacial river as gallons and gallons of the ice melted. It's still hard for me to understand how a massive chunk of ice like this can carve away the land on which it is situated leaving behind water and gravel. Wow.

From the base of the hill near the bottom of Exit Glacier, my dad, brother, and I decided to hike the Harding Icefield Trail that meandered up the mountain and above the glacier. The icefield itself is a massive (700 square miles) block of permanent ice from which many of the glaciers within the park originate. The trail was very steep as we hiked through small trees, then shrubs, and eventually made it to open tundra above the treeline. It was here that a park volunteer pointed out a distant mountain goat, and we spotted a couple of Hoary Marmots running across the trail.

Trees may not have been able to grow at this altitude, but many wildflower species covered the landscape. 

We slowly worked our way up, and after several miles of hiking, we made it to a flatter area that provided a stunning view of Exit Glacier from above.

One the most beautiful aspects of the glacier was the series of deep crevices in the closest portion of the ice. Deeper and deeper, the blue got darker until color gave way to shadows.

The trail from this spot on was almost entirely on snow pack. Fortunately, many people had walked this portion of the trail before we did, so it was easy to figure out where to go.

We soon began hearing odd noises from the slope above us, but we were unable to see anything more than twenty feet away. From the other direction, some small birds flew across the trail and landed on a patch of vegetation that was attempting to revive itself after a winter under the snow. 

Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches! As we continued hiking, we saw several small groups (no more than five) of these alpine finches along the trail. None of them seemed particularly concerned with our presence as shown by the photo above, which was taken with a lens that I typically use for scenery, not birds! These individuals are "Hepburn's" Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches, a subspecies that has an entirely gray face rather than just a gray crown. 

Not much farther along the path, we started hearing the strange noises again. They got closer and closer until it seemed as if they were right above us; yet, we could see nothing. Then, I spotted a silhouette in the fog. The bird flew up fairly high above our heads while calling, then dove towards the ground and sat on a barely-visible outcrop. It was a ptarmigan! We could hardly see the bird through the fog, but what we did see and the calls we heard identified it as a White-tailed Ptarmigan, another awesome alpine bird!

We soon left the birds behind and entered into an area of rock, snow, and ice. The fog grew even thicker; at times it was impossible to see each other even though we were quite close. We tried to follow small orange flags placed in the snow pack, but the fog was so thick that the next flag was not always visible. Nevertheless, we trudged on despite a diminishing number of footprints in the snow.

the excellent view from along the Harding Icefield Trail (yes, I'm being sarcastic)

After a long climb, we reached a flat area of snow and fog. We were walking on a spur of the icefield that seemed to be home to nothing at all, except Chlamydomonas nivalis, a fascinating "green" alga that can be found living on snow and ice. The common name for this organism is "watermelon snow," as the cells contain a red pigment that seems to stain the snow blood-red.

After about four miles of hiking, I spotted the faint image of a structure twenty feet ahead of us. We had reached the emergency shelter at last!

Every inch of the interior walls, rafters, and ceiling was covered with the names of people who had made the same trek to the icefield. Here is just one wall:

After a short rest at the shelter, we began the hike back down. The fog was not as heavy during the return, giving us a view of the slopes we would have slid down had we slipped on the way up! We eventually made it back near where Exit Glacier was visible.

By this point, the sun was low enough in the sky that it shone beneath the fog and illuminated the glacier. 

We continued to work our way through the snow and rock and eventually through the willow scrub. It was here that we witnessed our last treat of the day: a Golden-crowned Sparrow sitting a few feet from the trail. Again, I did not have my telephoto lens on the camera, but even the short lens was able to capture this bird that gave no notice of our presence.

The Harding Icefield Trail is one of the most incredible hikes I've ever done; the scenery, birds, and challenge were phenomenal. I hope that I have the chance to return to this spot someday—perhaps when it's not so foggy!

Friday, July 5, 2013

Alaska: The Adventure Begins

My family and I just returned from a trip to Alaska, where we witnessed many incredible sights that I hope to share in my next few blog posts. Our adventure began at the Newark airport, where security caused no problems for us, so we arrived at the gate with plenty of time to spare. When we boarded the plane, however, things took a turn for the worse. Even well after everyone was seated and the cabin door was closed, the plane sat the gate. Eventually, we pulled out, taxied about 100 yards, and then stopped. For half an hour. Hour. Hour and a half. It seemed as if no planes were taking off. To make matters worse, we suddenly began moving back towards the gate. Apparently one of the passengers had to be removed from the aircraft because of his lack of regard for instructions from the flight crew. Once he and few others disembarked, we still had to wait another thirty minutes before we made it to the runway. No one was happy about having to sit in cramped airplane seats for two hours longer than expected, and many, including us, had absolutely no chance of making our connecting flight out of Denver.

After over six hours in the airplane, we eventually made it to Colorado, where an airline representative promptly provided us with airplane tickets for the next morning (Denver to Seattle to Anchorage) as well as hotel and meal vouchers. It could have turned out a lot worse. Now, we'd at least be getting a good rest before arriving in Alaska, where we would have originally had to sit in the airport for several long, boring hours before the car rental service opened for the morning.

We awoke early the next morning for our flight and flew the first leg to Seattle, where we had a few hours in the airport. Having never been to the west coast, I immediately headed to the windows in search of new birds! I initially found a number of species with which I was already familiar: White-crowned Sparrows, Cedar Waxwings, and Bald Eagles. A small, gray bird caught my attention as it flew in a rather gnatcatcher-like manner across a small garden near the airport. It stopped for a moment to gather some sort of fuzzy material caught on a small branch, allowing me to get a decent view of my first ever Bushtit! Then, a Glaucous-winged Gull soared over the terminal giving me my second and final lifer in Seattle. We boarded this plane without delay, and we were off to the 49th state at last!

Our first Alaska birding experience was in the city of Anchorage. Much like in Pennsylvania, we found gulls patrolling the restaurant parking lots. The difference was that these were not Ring-billed and Herring Gulls, but rather Glaucous-winged and Mew Gulls!

We were headed south from the city towards the Kenai Peninsula where we planned to spend the first few days of our trip. Not far from the city, we discovered a large marsh filled with friendly Mew Gulls...

...and cooperative Arctic Terns.

Bald Eagles lined the nearby river flats, watching wigeon flocks swimming around the marshy areas. The roadside ponds and meadows were home to the abundant residents of the region that welcomed us as we passed: Trumpeter Swans, Black-billed Magpies, small flocks of Pine Siskins, and Northwestern Crows.

As we headed deeper into the peninsula, the scenery became more and more spectacular, with large, rocky mountains jutting from the water's edge. We certainly were not in Pennsylvania any more...

By nine in the evening, we made it to the cabin just north of the town of Seward. We fell asleep to still-lit skiesexhausted from a long day of travel and exhilarated by thoughts of the adventures to come. We were in Alaska!

Thursday, June 20, 2013

White-rumped Sandpipers

While birding around western Monroe County, Michael David and I came across some flooded soybean fields near the town of Kresgeville. Michael spotted a group of sandpipers in a distant pool, but they were too far way to identify without a spotting scope. We birded a few more stops including my house (heard the chat!) where we picked up my scope. When we returned to the sandpipers, we determined that we had found nine White-rumped Sandpipers, a very unusual species for the county!

White-rumped Sandpipers in flight

when the sandpipers landed, it was possible to see the characteristic white rump of this species, as the left-most bird is displaying

Sunday, June 16, 2013

Yellow-breasted Chat

While on a walk in our field almost two weeks ago, my mom and I heard a strange noise coming from one of the overgrown fencerows. When we heard the unique whistles, toots, and chattering of the bird a second time, it was clear that we were hearing a Yellow-breasted Chat, an odd olive and yellow songbird that is currently classified with wood warblers (although it looks and acts very differently than the rest of our warblers). Chats are very uncommon in this part of Pennsylvania, and this bird was my first record for the yard and county! We searched and searched for the bird in the tangles of autumn olive, barberry, and blackhaw, but he stayed hidden. However, he continued to sing throughout the evening and into the night:

(If the audio player does not work for you, check out the recording here:

Since that first encounter, we have heard the chat every day... and night too! In the earliest hours of the morning--when even the treefrogs have quieted--the chat continues singing, presumably from atop his favorite perch in a dead sassafras. In the morning hours, before the sun gets too hot and the cicadas begin their chorus, we have seen the chat perched alongside the resident thrashers and towhees. Unfortunately, he is extremely skittish and takes refuge in the densest brush whenever someone approaches. Nevertheless, it is still awesome to have this rare bird around and hear his distinct song coming through the window as I fall asleep each night.
A typical, distant view of the chat on his favorite perch

Friday, June 7, 2013

The Kestrels of State Game Lands #205

Last year, I wrote a about my experience banding American Kestrels in State Game Lands #205 in Lehigh County. I had a chance to return this past Tuesday to do some birding and check the nest boxes. The morning started out with a bird survey of the game lands that involved five-minute point counts at about twenty locations throughout the property. We found many common grassland bird species, including Field and Song Sparrows, Red-winged Blackbirds, Eastern Kingbirds, and Indigo Buntings. We also found a few less common species: Alder Flycatcher, Vesper and Grasshopper Sparrows, and Bobolink. The Bobolink and Vesper Sparrow were especially exciting, as these were species previously unrecorded in this game lands and are indicators of the excellent grassland habitat being created and managed there. For me, the singing Alder Flycatcher was intriguing, as there are very few known breeding territories of this species in Lehigh County.

After the bird survey, we checked on the nest boxes to determine the success of breeding kestrels this year.

All of the occupied nest boxes had chicks that were still too young to band, but we noted how many young and eggs were present in each nest.

Although the chicks were still too small for banding, we were able to capture several of the adult females. Most of these birds were unbanded, so we took measurements and placed a band around each bird's leg.

When we pulled the last bird of the day out of the nest box, we realized that she had was already banded and had a patagial tag, a type of wing marker used to identify individual birds without having them in the hand.

It turns out that this bird was banded as a chick in Warren County, NJ last June! One other adult female kestrel we caught was previously banded at the same location in New Jersey, but did not have a wing tag.

Based on the age of the young kestrels we saw, banding will take place in just a few weeks! All in all, the grassland songbird species we found in the morning and the many young kestrels we saw are good signs of a healthy grassland habitat that is sure to bring more birds in the future as the habitat matures and improves.

Thursday, June 6, 2013

Brook Snaketail -- Pennsylvania's First

The Pennsylvania Game Commission recently acquired a large tract of land on the north face of the Kittatinny Ridge in southern Monroe County. This property, once slated for development, contains a variety of habitats including a sedge and alder wetland that borders the Aquashicola Creek. This habitat looked like an excellent place to search for dragonflies, so I headed down there with my net and camera in hopes of finding some interesting species.

Sedges, cattails, and alders (in back)
While walking through the sedges, I found numerous Ashy Clubtails--a very common species this time of year:

The sedges also held many Calico Pennants and Twelve-spotted Skimmers. Once I worked my way through the sedges, I decided to focus my search close to the creek where it would be easier to see and catch the insects. Here I found many more Ashy Clubtails as well as hundreds of Ebony Jewelwings.

male Ebony Jewelwing--a type of damselfly
I soon spotted a large dragonfly with a distinctive green color, unlike the other species I had been seeing. I netted this individual in order to get a closer look:

This green, black, and yellow dragonfly is a Maine Snaketail, a species that inhabits rocky streams. This species is ranked as an S2S3 species within the state by the Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, which means that this is a rare species in Pennsylvania.

Not long after catching the Maine Snaketail, I spotted another dragonfly that appeared to be similar. In fact, when I saw it flying, I figured it might be of the same species. However, closer inspection suggested that was not the case.

The general appearance is very similar to that of the Maine Snaketail, but there are few differences in coloration and a distinct terminal appendage shape. Examination of the male's terminal appendages can be extremely helpful when identifying dragonflies. Notice the difference in shape of the appendages between the Maine Snaketail and this individual:

Maine Snaketail--note the two distinct "spines" on the lower appendage
On this snaketail, note the single spike on the lower appendage and the different shape of the upper
When I got home, I was able to research this species and determined it to be a Brook Snaketail (Ophiogomphus aspersus). After consulting a few experts, my identification was confirmed. I also discovered that this is a species that had never been recorded in the state of Pennsylvania before! 

I can't wait to get back to these game lands to see what other species may be hiding there!

Thursday, May 30, 2013

They're coming!

After several days of hearing and seeing a few periodical cicadas around the yard, the warm, muggy night of the 29th provided the perfect conditions for many more to emerge. This is what we found in the yard: